Arriving in Peru, you will be attracted by the story of the world famous lost city – Machu Picchu. Over the centuries, Machu Picchu today has become a tourist attraction in South America.
About 70 km from Cusco city, Machu Picchu was once forgotten and widely known only when it was discovered by archaeologist Hiram Bingham in 1911. In 1983 it was recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Located at an altitude of 2450m on the narrow mountains of the Andes, Machu Picchu is the most mysterious wonder in South American travel.
Many people believe that this city was built by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, starting around 1440. For a long time, it was uninhabited until the Spanish conquest of Peru in 1532. Archaeological evidence plus recent studies of early colonial texts show that Machu Picchu was not an ordinary city but a retreatment place for the Inca nobility.
Machu Picchu divides into total 3 areas: sacred, common and places for nobles and priests with more than 140 architectural works such as temples, churches, parks, houses and … prisons.
The area around this “Aerial City” is about 1,400m2 wide, 2,300m above sea level, and is covered by clouds all year round. The environment around this city is very high and dangerous. The ferocious Urumbanba River from Cusco is divided by a cliff facing north into the Amazone river system.
The dam force the water flow formed a dangerous vertical cliff at an angle of 700m. Sa ReBan mountain is 6,264m above sea level, covered with thick white snow stretching to the ravine. The granite pedestal above the dangerous place is the ancient citadel of Machu Picchu – This city is built on a mountain, three sides bordering on a river, as if there is no way up. The rooms are built in the middle of the mountain, including hundreds of perfect natural stone columns, easy for repairing and convenient for residents.
In the city there are many types of architecture such as: the Temple of the Sun, the altar, the palace of the king, the palace of the nobility, the residence of ordinary people or slaves, the trade ward, the market… It likes a maze, easy to enter, hard to turn.
The base of the walls are directly perforated on the rock. The site of the quarry is 30,000m2 wide. This proves that many stone materials are transported from somewhere, pulled up the mountain by human power and hard levers. If the slave fails to bring the stone up, he will be beaten. If the grass roofs of the houses here still exist, Machu Picchu absolutely deserves to be the most beautiful city in the world.
There are some scholars who believe that Machu Picchu is “the city of the sun goddess”. A beautiful women chosen to be the goddess of the Sun from all over the country were brought here to live in seclusion. Stemming from careful keeping, so the subjects were unaware of this castle’s existence.
On a small mound of the ancient site there is a large rectangular stone that cannot be compared. The surface of the stone is polished, sharply angled, set to the East, on the stone, a rope as big as the mouth of the bowl is tied. Through archaeologists ‘evidence, this is the famous “Sun-bound Stone”, expressing the Incas’ desire not to let the sun fall, to forever illuminate the rustic sentiment on Earth.
Famous as the lost city of the Incas, Machu Picchu attracts South American tourists each year. With the beauty embracing the mountains and the history associated with the mighty Inca empire, this is definitely an interesting destination that you should not miss on your South American trip.